All New Trends by Catagiri



Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal, fuel oil or natural gas, formed from the remains of dead plants and animals. Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms . The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. It also includes hydrocarbon-containing natural resources that are not derived from animal or plant sources. These are sometimes known instead as mineral fuels. A small portion of hydrocarbon-based fuels are biofuels derived from atmospheric carbon dioxide, and thus do not increase the net amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.


Fossil fuel is a general term for buried combustible geologic deposits of organic materials, formed from decayed plants and animals that have been converted to crude oil, coal, natural gas, or heavy oils by exposure to heat and pressure in the earth's crust over hundreds of millions of years.

Petroleum and natural gas are formed by the anaerobic decomposition of remains of organisms including phytoplankton and zooplankton that settled to the sea (or lake) bottom in large quantities under anoxic conditions, millions of years ago. Over geological time, this organic matter, mixed with mud, got buried under heavy layers of sediment. The resulting high levels of heat and pressure caused the organic matter to chemically alter, first into a waxy material known as kerogen which is found in oil shales, and then with more heat into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons in a process known as catagenesis.

Terrestrial plants, on the other hand, tend to form coal and methane. Many of the coal fields date to the Carboniferous period of Earth's history. Terrestrial plants also form type III kerogen, a source of natural gas.



Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include coal, petroleum, and natural gas. They range from volatile materials with low carbon:hydrogen ratios like methane, to liquid petroleum to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields, alone, associated with oil, or in the form of methane clathrates. The theory that fossil fuels formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earth's crust over millions of years, was first introduced by Georg Agricola in 1556 and later by Mikhail Lomonosov in the 18th century.

(The Energy Information Administration estimates that in 2007 the primary sources of energy consisted of petroleum 36.0%, coal 27.4%, natural gas 23.0%, amounting to an 86.4% share for fossil fuels in primary energy consumption in the world. Non-fossil sources in 2006 included hydroelectric 6.3%, nuclear 8.5%, and others (geothermal, solar, tidal, wind, wood, waste) amounting to 0.9%.[6] World energy consumption was growing about 2.3% per year.)


Fossil fuels are non-renewable energy sources that formed more than 300 million years ago during the Carboniferous Period - long before dinosaurs roamed the Earth. Fossil fuels are made up of plant and animal matter. When plants and animals died, their bodies decomposed and were buried under layers of earth. Millions of years later we have the three forms of fossil fuel: oil, natural gas and coal.



Oil is a thick, black, gooey liquid also called petroleum. It's found way down in the ground, usually between layers of rock. To get oil out, a well is dug. Digging a well is like putting a straw into a can of pop. The oil is then pumped out of the ground, just like when you suck pop up the straw. Oil is carried in pipelines and large tanker ships. A refinery changes the oil into products like gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel. It's also burned in factories and power plants to make electricity. The oil is burned, which produces gases that turn a turbine to create electricity.


Natural gas is lighter than air. Natural gas is made out of methane, which is a simple chemical compound made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms. This gas is highly flammable, so no farting near it. Natural gas is found near oil in the ground. It's pumped, just like oil, from wells that tap into the source and send it to large pipelines. Because you can't smell or see natural gas, it is mixed with a chemical to give it a stinky smell - like rotten eggs. That way, it's easy to tell if there's a leak.

After the stinky chemical is added, the natural gas is sent through underground pipes which go to your home so you can cook food and heat your house. It's also sent to factories and power plants to make electricity. Natural gas is burned to produce heat, which boils water, creating steam, which passes through a turbine to generate electricity.


Coal comes in several different forms from hard black rocks (that's the kind you get in your stocking at Christmas) to soft brown dirt. Some forms burn hotter and cleaner than others. Coal is used to create more than half of all the electricity made in the US. In the states, many of the coal beds are near the ground's surface. We get to the coal by mining for it. Most coal is transported by trains to power plants where it's burned to make steam. The steam turns turbines, which produce electricity.


Fossil fuels are one of the greatest threats to the environment today. Their burning contributes heavily to global warming, the pollution of the air, water and land, as well as the production of acid rain. Fossil fuels are non-renewable resources because they take millions of years to form, and reserves are being depleted much faster than new ones are being made. The production and use of fossil fuels raise environmental concerns. A global movement towards the generation of renewable energy is therefore under way to help meet increased energy needs.

When fossil fuels are burned huge amounts of carbon are released into the air. This contributes to the greenhouse effect, causing the sun’s warmth to be excessively trapped in the atmosphere. When this occurs, global temperatures rise. Melting of the polar ice caps causes ocean levels to rise as well.

(The burning of fossil fuels produces around 21.3 billion tonnes (21.3 gigatonnes) of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year, but it is estimated that natural processes can only absorb about half of that amount, so there is a net increase of 10.65 billion tonnes of atmospheric carbon dioxide per year (one tonne of atmospheric carbon is equivalent to 44/12 or 3.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide). Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases that enhances radiative forcing and contributes to global warming, causing the average surface temperature of the Earth to rise in response, which the vast majority of climate scientists agree will cause major adverse effects.)

This reduces the salinity of the ocean, endangering many organisms that are dependent upon a certain level of salt concentration to be able to live. It also poses a serious risk of many cities and settlements located close to sea level entirely disappearing under water.


Fossil fuels are materials that are non-renewable such as oil and coal. These have a big effect on the earth's ozone layer which keeps ultra-violet rays out. This will show you how to do your part in conserving fossil fuels.

1. Ride a bike. Instead of driving a car or taking a bus, try cycling or walking to your destination. This is better for the environment and better for you.

2. Buy solar panels. These are expensive but use solar power to heat your home, unlike heaters they don't use fossil fuels for heat.

3. Try not to use too much plastic. Fact: most of the plastic bags used today are made of oil. If there is no other alternative then just recycle them when done. Plastic bags can be reused at a grocery store if you ask to use the same bags. Some stores offer reusable bags too.

4. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Making new cans and bottles take a whole lot more fossil fuels than recycling an old one. In most cities, recycling plants will pay money for cans. Be sure to meet that recycling centers requirements. For example, most recycling plants want the lids taken off of bottles. Also know what you can, and cannot recycle.

5. Turn off lights. Several million people leave there lights on when going on vacation, business trips, etc, without even knowing it. This harms the environment and costs them a lot of money.

6. Influence others. Start a campaign that helps the environment such as litter clean up or picking up cans. Ask local leaders if you can put signs on posts where heavy traffic is.